Via https://newsapi.org online business online marketing online business opportunities SECURE SYNOPSIS: 27 JUNE 2019

Via https://newsapi.org online business online marketing online business opportunities

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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 27 JUNE 2019


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


Topic: population and associated issues

1) The crucial implication from UN’s World population prospects 2019 report is that India’s growing population positions more tests than opportunities. Critically analyse.(250 words)

The hindubuisnessline

Why this question: 

India is set to become the most populous nation in 2027, surpassing China, according to an estimation by the United Nation’s Department of Economic and Social Affairs. The article discusses how India’s growing population poses more challenges than opportunities.

Demand of the question:

The answer must discuss the findings of the report and explain the challenges and opportunities India has in the coming future.

Directive word: 

CriticallyanalyzeWhen asked to analyze, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement

Structure of the answer:

Introduction

Start with narration of few key facts and findings of the report.

Body

The answer must have the following discussions:

  • First discuss the key findings of the report.
  • Then move on to discuss in what way India’s growing population poses more challenges than opportunities.
  • Provide for an analysis of the consequences of growing population in different scenarios – rural regions, urban regions, men – women, different communities of the society etc.

Conclusion 

Conclude by suggesting solutions to control the population size and handle the challenges posed by it.

Introduction:

India is set to become the most populous nation in 2027, surpassing China, according to an estimation by the United Nation’s Department of Economic and Social Affairs. India’s population has been growing at a much faster rate than China’s, with the poorer regions contributing the most to that growth.

Body:

Opportunities:

  • The median age of India’s population will be 28.43 years in 2020 compared to 38.4 years in China.
  • The size of markets will increase. This should enable firms to take greater advantage of economies of scale.
  • Extra demand will be generated. This is likely to stimulate investment and this may lead to introduction of new technology.
  • There may be an increase in factor mobility if the rise has resulted from an increase in the birth rate or immigration. Expanding industries can recruit new workers to the labour force. These people are likely to be familiar with new ideas and methods. If this is the case, firms’ training costs will be reduced.
  • A rise in the labour force presently due to net immigration and in the future, caused by a rise in the birth rate. Net immigration will bring in more workers.
  • If the population is above the optimum size, the country will be able to make better use of its resources.

Challenges posed overweigh the opportunities:

  • TFR varies significantly across the socio-economic groups, it is concentrated among economically weaker section of the society which has implications on our SDGs, poverty, hunger, malnutrition, health, education etc.
  • Jobs are not created at the rate it should be and growth is uneven.
  • We have short window of opportunity, it is important to nurture and exploit this population growth to the best economic advantages is a challenge.
  • Challenge is how we raise India’s economic status from being low middle country to atleast high middle income.
  • Share of older people is rising rapidly, growth for older people is 70% from now to 2050 but total population is growing only by 56%.
  • The aspiration of the women and families have changed with time, they now want fewer children but lack access to family planning. This is evident from one report which says that there is 13% unwanted fertility in India.
  • Real challenge is quality of life, 21% of 60 plus population is suffering from chronic morbidities.
  • Unequal rate of population growth among states.

Way Forward:

  • It is very necessary to create growth momentum, investment should be adequately made in key infrastructure areas, social infrastructure and that to particularly education, water, and health.
  • Family planning is a preventive measure in bringing down maternal and child mortality rate.
  • China and Japan have controlled their population by various measures, the same can be adopted by us according to our suitability.
  • More support from private sector is needed for supporting Government’s family planning program.
  • The rural access to quality medical service has to be improved.
  • Making agriculture remunerative and keeping food prices stable are crucial to ensure nutrition for all.
  • The poor, populous northern States must make concerted advances in women’s literacy, health and participation in the workforce
  • It is imperative that policy-makers deal with the situation on multiple fronts.
  • Universal education, value-added skills accretion and massive growth in employment in the formal sectors should be the key focus areas.
  • Making agriculture remunerative and keeping food prices stable are crucial to ensure nutrition for all.

Conclusion:

India is set to become the most populous nation. Analysts believe that India’s growing population can be a double-edged sword and the country needs to put in place the right policies to maximize the potential of its people by enhancing the state of education, health and infrastructure, so that India figures at better in various human development rankings.


Topic:Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability.Cyber security related issues.

2) Do you think the Indian government’s intent towards data protection lie in favour data localisation? Critically analyse. (250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The article discusses why the Indian government intends in favor of data localization.

Key demand of the question:

One has to discuss the concept of data localization; Why government wants this? Concerns expressed by stakeholders and possible solutions.

Directive:

CriticallyanalyzeWhen asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with the concept of data localisation.

Body:

Explain the following points:

  • What is the issue associated?
  • What does data localization mean? – is a sensitive issue the world over and more so in India, given that this is a country of 1.3 billion people with over 1 billion mobile users. With technology developing rapidly, more and more devices becoming smarter and the Internet of Things taking over, a genuine concern around leakage of private data has gained ground.
  • Explain why data localization is necessary for India? What are the policies that imply data localization?
  • Discuss the concerns and challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the fact that there is an urgent need to have an integrated, long-term strategy for policy creation for data localization.

Introduction:

Data localisation refers to the process of storing data within the borders of a particular country where the data was generated. India’s recent drafts and statements have strong signals for data localisation, which means that data of Indians, even if collected by an American company, must be stored and processed in India. Worldwide, the data flow debate is playing out at the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and G20.

Body:

Importance of Data localization for India:

  • For securing citizen’s data, data privacy, data sovereignty, national security, and economic development of the country.
  • Much of the data from online sales, on ecommerce platforms is likely to be hosted and stored in US data firms.
  • The extensive data collection by technology companies, has allowed them to process and monetise Indian users’ data outside the country.
  • To curtail the perils of unregulated and arbitrary use of personal data
  • With the advent of cloud computing, Indian users’ data is outside the country’s boundaries, leading to a conflict of jurisdiction in case of any dispute.
  • Data is a digital transactions footprint. During war or hostilities, data centres could be switched off. Such scenarios are pushing countries towards local infrastructure.

Yes, Data localization in needed in India due to:

  • Data localisation will help Indian law enforcement agencies access data.
  • RBI circular says that, it is important to have unfettered supervisory access to data stored in India.
  • Localisation will help law enforcement access the data. Currently, India has to use “mutual legal assistance treaties” (MLAT) with the US to get the data of Indians that are controlled by American companies.
  • By requiring a copy of the data to be stored in India (data mirroring), the government hopes to have more direct control over these companies, including the option to levy more taxes on them
  • Recently lynching across the country were linked to WhatsApp rumours and in this context, localisation of data assumes significance.
  • It gives security against foreign attacks and surveillance.
  • Domestic companies support data localisation citing examples of China and Russia.
  • Data is the new oil, data is strategic and foreign entities could cripple India in event of war or sanctions.
  • India’s data localisation push can give rise to new business opportunity.
  • India is an ideal location for lower cost of operations and availability of quality talent.
  • National wealth creation relies on in-house data storage.
  • It champions domestic innovation.
  • Massive amounts of data generated by cities can be used to improve infrastructure and transport systems as Singapore has done.

No, data localization is not needed due to:

  • It will create domino effect of protectionist policy and other countries may also follow it. This leads to fragmentation of internet.
  • It may affect India’s young start-ups that are attempting global growth.
  • It may affect big firms like TCS and Wipro because they are processing foreign data in India.
  • Even if the data is stored in the country, encryption keys may remain out of reach of national agencies.
  • It can act as “barriers” to expansion of services in India, impacting not only consumers but also growth of Indian payments market.
  • Infrastructure in India for efficient data collection and management is lacking
  • Others caution that these laws could bring increased state surveillance, like India’s draft intermediary rules that would require WhatsApp to change its design to proactively filter messages.

Way forward:   

  • There is an urgent need to have an integrated, long-term strategy for policy creation for data localisation.
  • Devising an optimal regulatory and legislative framework for data processors and data centres operating in the country.
  • Adequate infrastructure in terms of energy, real estate, and internet connectivity also needs to be made available for India to become a global hub for data centres.
  • Adequate attention needs to be given to the interests of India’s Information Technology Enabled Services (ITeS) and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industries, which are thriving on cross borderdata flow
  • Data needs to be shared with start-ups so that they can have a level playing field in offering innovative services with large and often global data companies.

Topic:Important aspects of governance, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

3) What is the potential of India’s MSME sector? Discuss the challenges and concerns associated with the growth of MSME sector in India.(250 words)

Indianexpress

Why this question:

The article discusses the findings of the committee set up to undertake a comprehensive review of the micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) sector, which has submitted its report to the RBI, It has examined issues such as access to finance and infrastructure bottlenecks that continue to plague the sector.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss in detail the potential of the MSME sector and the challenges it is facing in India.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with some statistics/data related to MSMEs in India.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

  • What are the issues plaguing the MSME sector? – fiscal indiscipline, lack of infrastructure, Limited capital and knowledge and Non-availability of suitable technology are few critical issues in this sector,Ineffective marketing strategy, Constraints on modernization and expansions and Non-availability of skilled labour at affordable cost.
  • Explain the potential it holds in India.
  • Then move on to discuss what measures need to be considered? What needs to be done?

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating that the only way to create millions of jobs with decent wages is a policy re-imagination of the rights, needs, and treatment of formal MSME entrepreneurs.

Introduction:

Micro, Small & Medium enterprises (MSME) termed as “engine of growth“for India, has played a prominent role in the development of the country in terms of creating employment opportunities. The government, in conjunction with the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), has now launched a series of measures to alleviate their distress.

Body:

Potential of India’s MSME sector:

  • Contribution to GDP:The share of MSMEs in thecountry’s gross value added is estimated to be about 32%.
  • Leveraging Exports:It also contributes about40% to total exports and 45% to manufacturing output.
  • Employment Opportunities:It employs 60 million people, creates 1.3 million jobs every year and produces more than 8000 quality products for the Indian and international markets.
  • Diversity:There are approximately 30 million MSME Units in India and is quite diverse in terms of its size, level of technology employed, range of products and services provided and target markets.
  • Fostering Inclusive Growth:MSME is constructing inclusive growth in numerous ways through promoting non- agricultural livelihood at least cost, unbiased regional development, large female participation, and providing a protection against deflation.

The challenges and concerns associated with the growth of MSME sector:

  • Access to Credit:
    • According to Economic Survey (2017-18), MSME sector faces a major problem in terms of getting adequate credit for expansion of business activities.
    • The Survey had pointed out that the MSME received only 17.4 per cent of the total credit outstanding.
    • Most banks are reluctant to lend to MSMEs because from the perspective of bankers, inexperience of these enterprises, poor financials, lack of collaterals and infrastructure.
  • Poor Infrastructure:
    • With poor infrastructure, MSMEs’ production capacity is very low while production cost is very high.
  • Access to modern Technology:
    • The lack of technological know-how and financial constraints limits the access to modern technology and consequently the technological adoption remains low.
  • Access to markets:
    • MSMEs have poor access to markets. Their advertisement and sales promotion are comparatively weaker than that of the multinational companies and other big companies.
    • The ineffective advertisement and poor marketing channels makes it difficult for them to compete with large companies.
  • Legal hurdles:
    • Getting statutory clearances related to power, environment, labour are major hurdles.
    • Laws related to the all aspects of manufacturing and service concern are very complex and compliance with these laws are difficult.
  • Lack of skilled manpower:
    • The training and development programs in respect of MSME`S development has been. Thus, there has been a constant crunch of skilled manpower in MSMEs

Other issues:

  • Low ICT usage.
  • Low market penetration.
  • Quality assurance/certification.
  • IPR related issues.
  • Quality assurance/certification.
  • Standardization of products and proper marketing channels to penetrate new markets.

Measures needed:

  • Government of India and banks should design plans and measures to widen easy, hassle-free access to credit.
  • The RBI should bring stringent norms for Non-Performing Assets (NPA) and it will help curbing loan defaulters and motivate potential good debts. Further, according to critics, the Credit Guarantee Scheme for MSME (CGTMSE) run by SIDBI is a growing contingent liability and needs to be examined with urgency
  • Government should provide enhanced development and upgradation of existing rail & road network and other infrastructure facilities in less developed and rural areas to boost growth and development of MSMEs
  • There should proper research and development in respect of innovative method of production and service rendering. Further, the government should promote and subsidise the technical know-how to Micro and small enterprises.
  • Government should encourage procurement programme, credit and performance ratings and extensive marketing support to revive the growth of sick units.
  • Skill development and imparting training to MSME workers is a crucial step to increase the productivity of the sector. The government should emphasise predominantly on skill development and training programs

Conclusion:        

MSMEs being the growth engine of economy, there is a need to prepare a roadmap for sector in addition to the ad-hoc initiatives undertaken. Delineation of the objectives, vision, and mission is necessary to give clarity on the path to be treaded. An inclusive, sustainable vision to compete with the global MSMEs, by collaborating the industry groups, researchers, government and other stakeholders is the need of the hour.


Topic Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

4) Discuss the major important cropping patterns of India along with the factors affecting it.(250 words)

Indian geography by Majid Hussain

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper III.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must discuss mainly the factors affecting important cropping patterns and the key cropping patterns practiced in the country.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Describe what is a cropping pattern. 

Body:

The answer is straightforward and direct in approach, one has to discuss the major cropping patterns of the country. Cropping Pattern mean the proportion of area under different crops at a point of time, changes in this distribution overtime and factors determining these changes. Cropping pattern in India is determined mainly by rainfall, climate, temperature and soil type. Then explain in detail the factors affecting it – natural and man-made.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.

Introduction:

Cropping pattern is a dynamic concept because it changes over space and time. It can be defined as the proportion of area under various crops at a point of time. In other words, it is a yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of sowing and fallow on a given area. In India, the cropping pattern determined by rainfall, climate, temperature, soil type and technology.

Body:

Major important cropping patterns of India:

Rabi cropsare sown in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June. Some of the important Rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard. Though, these crops are grown in large parts of  India,  states  from  the  north  and  north-western  parts  such  as  Punjab,  Haryana, Himachal  Pradesh,  Jammu  and  Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh are important for  the  production  of  wheat  and  other  rabi crops.  Availability of precipitation during winter months due to the western temperate cyclones helps in the success of these crops. However, the success of the green revolution in  Punjab,  Haryana,  western  Uttar  Pradesh and  parts  of  Rajasthan  has  also  been  an important factor in the growth of the above-mentioned rabi crops.

Kharif cropsare grown with the onset of monsoon in different parts of the country and these are harvested in September-October. Important crops grown during this season are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soyabean. Some  of  the  most  important  rice-growing regions are Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Maharashtra,  particularly the (Konkan coast) along with Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Recently, paddy has also become an important crop of Punjab and Haryana. In states like Assam, West Bengal and Odisha, three crops of paddy are grown in a year. These are Aus, Aman and Boro.

In between the Rabi and the kharif seasons, there is a short season during the summer months known as theZaid season. Some of the crops produced during ‘zaid’ are watermelon,   muskmelon,   cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops. Sugarcane takes almost a year to grow.

Some of the most commonly followed crop patterns:

  • Rice-Wheat:UP, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh.
  • Rice-Rice:Irrigated and Humid coastal system of Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Kerala.
  • Rice- Groundnut:Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa and Maharashtra
  • Rice-Pulses:Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Bihar.
  • Maize-Wheat:UP, Rajasthan, MP and Bihar.
  • Sugarcane-Wheat:UP, Punjab and Haryana accounts for 68% of the area under sugarcane. The other states which cover the crops are; Karnataka and MP.
  • Cotton-Wheat:Punjab, Haryana, West UP, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu.
  • Soya bean-Wheat:Maharashtra, MP and Rajasthan
  • Legume Based Cropping Systems (Pulses-Oilseeds):MP, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

Factors affecting Cropping pattern:Cropping pattern of any region depends upon many factors

  • Physical and Technical Factors:
    • These include the physical characteristic as soil, climate, weather rainfall etc. In the dry regions where the rainfall is scanty and where there is high uncertainty of monsoons, the dependence is on jowar and bajra. Water logging areas cultivate rice.
    • Cropping pattern also depend upon irrigation facilities. Where ever water is available, not only can a different crop be grown but even double or triple cropping will be possible.
  • Economic Factors:
    • Economic motivation is the most important in determining the cropping pattern of the country. Among the various economic factors affecting crop pattern, the following are important:
    • Price and Income Maximisation:Price variations exert an important influence on acreage shifts. The variation in the inter-crop prices led to shifts in acreage as between the crops.
    • Farm Size:There is a relationship between the farm size and the cropping pattern. The small farmers are first interested in producing food grain for their requirements. Small holder therefore devotes relatively small acreage to cash crops than large holders.
    • Insurance against risk:The need to minimise the risk of crop failures not only explains diversification but also some specific features of crop patterns.
    • Availability of Inputs:Seeds, fertilizers, water storage, marketing, transport etc. also affect the cropping pattern.
    • Tenure:Under the crop sharing system, the landlord has a dominant voice in the choice of the cropping pattern and this helps in the adoption of income maximising crop adjustments.
  • Infrastructure facilities:
    • Irrigation, transport, storage, trade and  marketing,  post-harvest  handling  and processing etc
  • Government Policies:
    • The legislative and administrative policies of the government may also affect the cropping pattern. Food Crops Acts, Land Use Acts, intensive schemes for paddy, for cotton and oilseeds, subsidies affect the cropping pattern.
    • MSP – farmers shifting to wheat, rice
    • Green Revolution – skewed cropping pattern in Northern India towards wheat and rice from coarse cereals and pulses
  • Social factors
    • Food habits also play a role – East and South India prefers rice as staple food while it is wheat in North India.

Conclusion:        

The cropping pattern in India has undergone significant changes over time. As the cultivated area remains more or less constant, the increased demand for food because of increase in population and urbanisation puts agricultural land under stress resulting in crop intensification and substitution of food crops with commercial crops.


Topic: Major crops cropping patterns in various parts of the country, different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

5) In India, a large part of the Agri supply chain ecosystem is either in the public sector, or strongly linked to it, do you think private investments in primary agriculture can prove to be a solution to make agriculture more sustainable for the country? Discuss. (250 words)

Reference

Why this question:

The article debates about the role of private investments in agriculture and the possible consequences of it.

Key demand of the question:

The answer must provide for a detailed analysis of possible impact that private investments would have on agriculture in India.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief background of the context in question.

Body:

Discussion should include the following: 

First discuss the gaps in agriculture system of the country – infrastructural gaps, financial gaps, role of government etc.

Then move on to explain what effect would private investment have on India.

Discuss what can be the issues associated to increased private investments.

Link it to doubling of farmer’s income and end with a positive note.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

In India, a large part of the agri supply chain ecosystem is either in the public sector, or strongly linked to it. The huge scale at which it is done has many chinks in the armour. This has resulted in food quality issues, huge wastage of food,  reduced remuneration to farmers and agrarian distress.

Body:

Role of Government:

  • The Indian government attempts to insulate the cultivator from price fluctuations by procuring their produce at Minimum Support Prices (MSPs).
  • The 7500+ Agricultural Procurement and marketing Committee (APMC) mandis provide a marketplace for the transaction and the Food Corporation of India (FCI) plays the role of the buyer, storing the procured produce in the relevant warehousing corporation’s warehouse.
  • Ultimately, this gets distributed through the Public Distribution System (PDS) shops and reaches the consumer. For non-MSP crops, the producer is dependent on the traditional private channels to market her produce.
  • Agriculture is a ‘state subject’ and a large part of investment as well as regulatory progress is happening at the state level.
  • Till very recently, regulatory barriers had constrained the development of storage and processing infrastructure but measures like inclusion of agri-warehousing under priority sector lending by RBI, subsidy schemes, tax incentives and the Warehousing Act (which will promote negotiability of warehousing receipts) have helped private players take an active interest in the same.
  • The Private Entrepreneur Guarantee Scheme is one such initiative to incentivize private investment for construction of warehouses by private entrepreneurs, with an FCI guarantee to hire them for 10 years, assuring a fair return on investment by the entrepreneur.

Challenges posed due to monopoly of Public sector:

  • Inefficient price signals:The government has been buying almost one-third of all rice and wheat produced in India through the PDS system, but in other kinds of grains, fruits and vegetables (both being highly perishable), the role of the government is limited. This leads to MSPs being ineffective as both price signals and as insulators from the perspective of the larger agricultural population.
  • Limited reach of mandis:Also, this procurement system has failed to cover the entire country evenly (back of the envelope calculation suggests that on an average, a farmer needs to travel 12 kms to reach the nearest mandi and more than 50 kms in NE India) while according to the recommendations by National Farmers Commission, availability of markets should be within a 5 km radius.
  • Too many intermediaries, information asymmetry:The above mentioned problems have led to formation of long marketing channels, with multiple intermediaries, adding to the woes of the producers of perishable agri goods. These intermediaries have led to a cost inflation of ~250% (over the cost of production) and have exacerbated the existing information asymmetries in agriculture, especially for non-MSP crops.
  • Inadequate infrastructure for storage:The Planning Commission has recently estimated the gap between agri-warehousing supply and demand at 35 mn MT. Currently, public sector agencies like the FCI, Central Warehousing Corporations (CWC) and the various State Warehousing Corporations (SWC) have a storage capacity of 71 mn MT, while the private sector has close to 25 mn MT. To put the scarcity in perspective, food grain stocks held only by the government was 80 mn MT last year (peak) according to the FCI annual report.
  • Skewed distribution of capacity:Skewed distribution of this capacity is another issue, with North India having access to 60% of the total storage infrastructure. The Planning Commission has recently estimated the gap between agri-warehousing supply and demand at 35 mn MT.
  • Lack of cold storage infrastructure:India’s current cold storage capacity at 25 MT is barely sufficient for 10% of fruit and vegetables produced in the country.
  • Lack of collateral management options:Collateral management refers to financing of agricultural goods stored at warehouses, and is estimated to be a ~Rs 3,500 cr opportunity by industry sources.

Private investments potential to improve the situation:

  • Comprehensive agriculture logistics solutions:Private players that provide integrated post harvest management solutions have entered the space to fill these gaps. They could also provide collateral management and other value added services (quality testing, agri insurance, bulk procurement and rural retailing) to its clients.
  • Integrated cold chain solutions:They could provide customized solutions for cold storage and refrigerated transportation across India for fresh and frozen commodities.
  • Contract Farming:involved in contract farming and agro processing, working on improving income realizations for small farmers through yield improvements, productivity increases, and consistent produce pricing.
  • Alternate marketplaces:By providing a way to bypass the long chain of intermediaries by directly connecting buyers and sellers of agricultural produce and allied services, via a web and mobile based information exchange platform.
  • Reducing the information asymmetry:Riding on the high mobile penetration in rural India private players are working on the problem of information asymmetry for agricultural producers, by making personalized agricultural market information available to the farmers at minimal costs, through a mobile based service.
  • Innovative ICT tools for supply chain management:A hosted web service for supply chain management, which can be accessed via basic mobile phones and web browsers, which makes it uniquely suitable for in rural markets. It is a configurable service which offers customers the ability to capture and share data in a simple, low-cost way, empowering them to make better logistics decisions.

Conclusion:        

These solutions could lead to better supply chain management in Indian agriculture, reducing inefficiencies and increasing farmer realizations, as well as curbing food waste. A co-ordinated effort with good policies bolstered by logistics of the private players can help in achieving the goal of doubling farmer’s income by 2022.


Topic:  Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.

7) Discuss the contribution of John Locke to the field of ethics.(250 words)

Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question s direct and is about discussing the contributions of John Locke to the field of ethics.

Key demand of the question:

elaborate discussion is demanded about relevance of John Locke’s works in field of ethics.

Directive:

DiscussThis is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction: 

Begin with brief on John Locke like how the English philosopher and political theorist John Locke laid much of the groundwork for the Enlightenment and made central contributions to the development of liberalism.

Body:

Give detailed discussion on the contributions of John Locke and relate it with real life examples to show its importance in ethics. Discuss how his contributions are relevant even today especially in the administration from ethical point of view.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the importance of his work and its relevance today.

Introduction:

John Locke was an English philosopher whose ideas had profound influence not only on French revolution but also in the making of various constitutions of the world. Indian constitution is no exception and had incorporated the ideas of liberty, right to property, separation of power, tolerance etc. One of his most famous book is,”Two treatises of Government”.

Body:

Locke’s contributions:

  • Natural Rights theory:
    • Locke believed rights of individual are inalienable part of human existence and state has no authority to curtail them.
    • This assumes significance today in growing attacks against right to privacy in the name of national security surveillance by state.
  • Separation of powers:
    • Locke strongly propounded the theory of separation of powers between the executive, legislature and judiciary.
    • To prevent the tyranny of the govt he advocated checks and balances
  • Laissez faire:
    • Locke advocated for free market economy, free from government interventions.
    • In the backdrop of increasing deglobalization and trade protectionism , Locke’s ideas remind us of dangers of inward looking economic policies
  • Tolerance:
    • He argued that the govt should not resort to force to impose their will and should be tolerant to the dissent of the people
  • Freedom of speech and expression:
    • Locke was an ardent supporter of liberty of thought and liberty of action.
    • This assumes significance in the backdrop of censorship of films by Central Film Certification Board and curbing of free speech by social activists against state authorities under the threat of criminal defamation.
  • Rule by majority:
    • John Locke had talked about rule by majority. However, majority does not mean it’s always right.
    • There are certain universal values like humanity itself which can never be sacrificed.
  • Punishment:
    • This should be exercised only in case a man violates another man’s right to life, liberty and property.
  • On patriarchy and women’s question:
    • In his 1st Treatise of Government, Locke is seen as criticizing Filmer’s idea of a patriarchal government and divine rights of kings.
    • He also champions women’s rights and demands equal opportunities for them.
    • It is important in the 21st century where women face inequality in all spheres of lives in many countries
  • On property:
    • In the 2nd treatise, Locke says that man has a natural right over property, and also says that nature is entirely at the disposal of man for his comfort.
    • This can be examined by the fact that he was writing at the time of abundance, when America was recently discovered and Europeans were colonizing it.
    • His theory should be vastly modified in today’s context, where resources are dwindling.
    • Also, if property were a natural right, why are so many people deprived of it, and why is there so much inequality? He also does not speak about inheritance, which is a major reason for inequality today

Conclusion:        

The ideas of John Locke are relevant still today. The right such as right to life, liberty , rule of law are enshrined in the constitution, right to property has become a legal right and various form of punishment act as deterrent to those who go against laws. Also there is separation of powers and govt takes the dissent of people constructively and never uses force to impose will. The ideas of John Locke have a profound impact on our lives.

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